Species protection is not an option, it is mandatory! Switzerland is committed in many national and international laws and agreements to protect the species of Switzerland - including fungi.
National laws and conventions
The federal act on the protection of nature and cultural heritage, for example, stipulates that "the extinction of native animal and plant species (fungi are still counted as plants here) is to be counteracted by the conservation of sufficiently large habitats and other appropriate measures". Annex 2 of the Regulation contains the list of nationally protected fungal species.
- Federal Act on the Protection of Nature and Cultural Heritage 1966 (NHG, SR 451), as at 1 January 2012, Section 3: Protection of native flora and fauna
- Regulation on the Protection of Nature and Cultural Heritage 1991 (NHV, SR 451.1), Section 3: Protection of Native Flora and Fauna
Various ordinances regulate the protection of particularly endangered habitats and landscapes as well as their typical animal and plant species. They contain the federal inventories of habitats of national importance:
- Regulation on the Protection of Floodplain Areas of National Importance 1992 (Floodplain Ordinance; SR 451.31)
- Regulation on the Protection of Peat Bogs and Transitional Peat Bogs of National Importance 1991 (Peat Bog Ordinance; SR 451.32)
- Regulation of 1994 on the Protection of Fens of National Importance (Fens Ordinance; SR 451.33)
- Regulation on the Protection of Mire Landscapes of Special Beauty and National Importance 1996 (Moorlandschaftsverordnung; SR 451.35)
- Regulation on the Protection of Dry Meadows and Pastures of National Importance 2010 (Dry Meadow Ordinance, TwwV; SR 451.37)
The federal act on the protection of the environment is intended "to protect human beings, animals and plants from harmful or annoying effects on their communities and habitats, and to preserve the natural foundations of life, in particular biological diversity and soil fertility, on a permanent basis". It stipulates, for example, that an environmental impact assessment must be obtained as early as possible for the planning, construction or modification of any new installations.
- Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment 1983 (USG; SR 814.01 )
In the Agriculture Act, the federal government undertakes, among others, "that agriculture will make a substantial contribution through sustainable and market-oriented production".
- Federal Act on Agriculture 1951, rev. 1998 (LwG; SR 910.1 )
Other legal bases:
- Regulation on Direct Payments to Agriculture 1998 (DZV; SR 910.13)
- Regulation on Alpine Pasture Contributions 2007 (SöBV; SR 910.133)
- Regulation on Regional Promotion of the Quality and Interconnectednessof Ecological Compensation Areas in Agriculture 2001 (ÖQV; SR 910.14)
The Rio Conventions on Biological Diversity represent international environmental agreements. The Conventions have three objectives: (i) Protection of biological diversity; (ii) Sustainable use of its components; (iii) Access regulation and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. Biological diversity or biodiversity comprises (i) species diversity; (ii) genetic diversity within individual species; and (iii) the diversity of ecosystems. 168 states and the European Union have so far signed the Convention (as of 2018).
The objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity are to be implemented through two internationally binding agreements, the Cartagena Protocol and the Nagoya Protocol. The Cartagena Protocol regulates the transboundary movement of genetically modified organisms. The Nagoya Protocol regulates "access to genetic resources and equitable sharing of benefits" and contains the "Aichi objectives" relevant to global species conservation: By 2020 (i) the loss of natural habitats should be halved, (ii) overfishing of the world's oceans stopped and (iii) 17% of the land area and 10% of the oceans protected.
- Convention on Biological Diversity CBD, The Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing
Other important international conventions are (i) the Ramsar Convention, which provides a framework for national protection and international cooperation for the sustainable use and protection of wetlands and their resources; (ii) the Washington Convention (CITES), a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973, UNEP); (iii) the Berne Convention, a Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Council of Europe 1979) and (iv) the Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (1992, European Union).